A treatment that renders non-conductive material receptiveto electroless deposition.
A device that requires an external source of power tooperate upon its input signal(s). Examples of
active devices: transistors, rectifiers, diodes, amplifiers,oscillators, mechanical relays.
Deposition or addition of conductive material on clad or unclad base material.
Aluminum Nitride, a compound of aluminum with nitrogen.
A substrate of aluminum nitride.
The minimum distance between features pad - pad, pad ûtraces and trace û trace
A ceramic used for insulators in electron tubes orsubstrates in thin film circuits. It can withstand
continuously with high temperatures and has a low dielectricloss over a wide frequency range.
Aluminum oxide (Al2O3)
The surrounding environment coming into contact with thesystem or component in question Annular Ring: The width of the conductor padsurrounding a drilled hole. The pad area that remainsafter a hole is drilledthrough the pad. Designer tip: Try using teardrop shaped pads. They allow foranydrill wander and / or Image shift during manufacturing and will help keep ahealthy (over .002ö) annularring, at trace junction (required by IPC: A: 600).
An electrical circuit that provides a continuousquantitative output as a response from its input.
An indexed shape with a specified x and y dimension, or linetype with a specified width, used as a basic element or object by aphotoplotter in plotting geometric patterns on film. The index of the apertureis its Position (a number used in an aperture list to identify an aperture) orD code.
A component of a vector photoplotter, it is a metal diskhaving cutouts with brackets and screw holes arranged near its rim forattaching apertures. Its center hole is attached to a motorized spindle on the lamp head of the photoplotter. When a D code denoting aparticular position on the wheel is retrieved from a Gerber file by thephotoplotter, the wheel is caused to rotate so that the aperture in thatpositionis placed between the lamp and the film. In preparation for a photoplotting, the aperture wheel is set up by a technician who reads a printedaperture list, selects the correct aperture from a set of them stored in a boxwith compartments and, using a small screw driver, installs the aperture ontothe position on the wheel which is called for on the list. This process issubject to human error and is one of the disadvantages of vector photoplotter as compared with laserphotoplotter.
This is a text file describing the size and shape of eachelement on the board. Also known as a D:codelist. This report is not necessaryif your files are saved as Extended Gerber with embedded Apertures(RS274X).
A list of the shapes and sizes for describing the pads andtracks used to create a layer of a circuit board.Assembly File: A drawingdescribing the locations of components on a PCB.
(Automated Optical Inspection): Automatic laser/videoinspection of traces and pads on the surface of inner layer cores or outerlayer panels. The machine uses cam data to verify copper feature positioning, size and shape. Instrumental in locating"open" traces, missing features or "shorts".
(Acceptance Quality Level): The maximum number of defectiveslikely to exist within a population (lot)that can be considered to becontractually tolerable, normally associated with statistically derived sampling plans.
A group of elements or circuits arranged in rows and columnson a base material.
The photographic image of the PCB pattern on film used toproduce the circuit board, usually on a 1:1 scale.
The ratio of the PCB thickness to the diameter of thesmallest hole.
The ratio of the board thickness to the smallest drilledhole. (Ex. 0.062ö thick board 0.0135ö drill = aspect ratio of 4.59:1). Designertip: Minimizing the aspect ratio of the holes improves through hole plating and minimizes the chance of via failures
Artwork for printed circuit design is photoplotted film (ormerely the Gerber files used to drive the photoplotter), NC Drill file anddocumentation which are all used by a board house to manufacture a bare printed circuit board. See also Valuable Final Artwork.
American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASCII isthe basis of character sets used in almost all present day computers.
The process of positioning and soldering components to aPCB. 2. Act or process of fitting together parts to make a9+ whole.
A drawing depicting the locations of components, with theirreference designators, on a printedcircuit. Also called "component locatordrawing."
A manufacturing facility for attaching and solderingcomponents to a printed circuit.
American Society of Testing and Materials.
American Wire Gauge. A PCB Designer needs to know diametersof wire gauges to properly size E pads. The American Wire Gauge, formerly knownas the Brown and Sharp (B + S) Gauge, originated in the wire drawing industry.The gauge is calculated so that the next largest diameter always has across-sectional area that is 26% greater.
Automated TestEquipment (ATE)
Equipment that automatically test and analyzes functionalparameters to evaluate performance of the tested electronic devices.
Machines are used to automate component placement.High-speed component placement machines,known as chip shooters, place thesmaller, lower pin count components. More complex componentswith higher pincounts are placed by fine pitch machines that have greater precision.
Automatic opticalcomponent inspection
Post placement optical inspection of componentpresence/absence using automated systems.
Automatic X-Raycomponent/pin inspection
These inspection machines use X-Ray images to look undercomponents are inside of the joints to determine the structural integrity ofthe solder connections.
Automatic router, a computer program that routes a PC boarddesign (or a silicon chip design) automatically.
A group of elements or circuits (or circuit boards) arrangedin rows and columns on a base material.
A finished printed circuit board (PCB) that has nocomponents mounted yet.It is also known as BBT.
The substrate material upon which the conductive pattern maybe formed. The base material can be rigid or flexible.
A via connects two or more inner layers but no outer layer,and cannot be seen from either side of the board.
Built in Self Test
An electrical testing method that allows the tested devicesto test itself with specific added on hardware.
An intermediate stage in the reaction of a thermosettingresin in which the material softens whenheated and swells, but does notentirely fuse or dissolve, when it is in contact with certain liquids.
The cylinder formed by plating the walls of a drilled hole.
The insulating material used to form the conductive pattern.It may be rigid or flexible or both. It may be a dielectric or insulated metalsheet.
The thickness of the base material excluding metal foil ormaterial deposited on the surface.
Bed of Nails
A test fixture consisting of a frame and a holder containinga field of spring loaded pins that make electrical contact with a planar testobject.
A localized swelling and/or separation between any of thelayers of a laminated base material, or between base material or conductivefoil. It is a form of Delamination.
Board vendor. A manufacturer of printed circuit boards.
The overall thickness of the base material and allconductive material deposited thereon. Almost any thickness of pcb can beproduced, but 0.8mm, 1.6mm, 2.4, and 3.2mm are the commonest.
A specified number of Prepreg plies which are assembled alongwith inner layer cores in preparation for curing in a lamination press.
The force per unit area required to separate two adjacentlayers of a board by a force perpendicular to the board surface.
The deviation from flatness of a board characterized by aroughlycylindrical or spherical curvature such that, if the product isrectangle, its four corners are in the same plane.
The region of a base material that is external to that ofthe end product being fabricated within it.
A ridge surrounding the hole left on the outside coppersurface after drilling.
Ball grid array -(Abbrev. BGA)
A flip chip type of package in which the internal dieterminals form a grid style array, and are in contact with solder balls ( solderbumps ), which carry the electrical connection to the outside of the package.
The PCB footprint will have round landing pads to which thesolder balls will be soldered when the package and PCB are heated in a reflowoven. Advantages of the ball grid array package are (1) that its size iscompact and (2) its leads do not get damaged in handling (unlike the formed"gull wing" leads of a QFP) and thus has a long shelf life.Disadvantages of the BGA are 1) they, or their solder joints, are subject to stress related failure. For example, the intensevibration of rocket powered space vehicles can pop them right off the PCB, 2)they cannot be hand soldered (they require a reflow oven), making first articleprototypes a bit more expensive to stuff, 3) except for the outer rows, thesolder joints cannot be visually inspected and 4) they are difficult to rework.
The electrode of a transistor which controls the movementsof electrons or holes by means of an electric field on it. It is the elementwhich corresponds to the control grid of an electron tube.
A metal beam (flat metallic lead which extends from the edgeof a chip much as wooden beams extend from a roof overhang) deposited directlyonto the surface of the die as part of the wafer processing cycle in thefabrication of an integrated circuit. Upon separation of the individual die(normally by chemical etching instead of the conventional scribe:and:breaktechnique), the cantilevered beam is left protruding from the edge of the chipand can be bonded directly to interconnecting pads on the circuit substratewithout the need for individual wire interconnections. This method is anexample of flip:chip bonding, contrasted with solder bump.
Printed circuit board: A CAD database which represents thelayout of a printed circuit.
The portion of an electronic component exclusive of its pinsor leads.
BOM [pronounced "bomb"]Bill of Materials A list ofcomponents to be included on an assembly such as a printed circuit board. For aPCB the BOM must include reference designators for the components used anddescriptions which uniquely identify each component. A BOM is used for orderingparts and, along with an assembly drawing, directing which parts go where when the board is stuffed.
Boundary Scan test
Edge connector test systems that utilize the IEEE 1149standard for describing test functionality that may be embedded withincertain components.
The thin copper foil portion of a copper clad laminate forPCBs. It can be present on one or both sides of the board, and on inner layers.
Bevel.An angled edge of a printed board.
A conductive surface hole that connects an outer layer withan inner layer of a multilayer board.
Sheet material impregnated with a resin cured to anintermediate stage (B:stage resin). Prepreg is the popular term.
A thermosetting resin that is in an intermediate state ofcure.
The cutoff time for receiving orders and files is 2:00 pm(PST) Monday through Friday forFull Featured boards. Some files have been knownto take 45 minutes to navigate the web, so please allow for this. Build timestarts the following business day, unless a "hold" occurs.
CAD -(Computer AidedDesign)
A system whereengineers create a design and see the proposed product in front of them on agraphics screen or in the form of a computer printout or plot. In electronics,the result would be a printed circuit layout.
CAM -(Computer AidedManufacturing)
The interactive use of computer systems, programs, andprocedures in various phases of a manufacturing process wherein, the decisionmaking activity rests with the human operator and a computer provides the datamanipulation functions.
v The data files used directly in the manufacture of printedwiring. The file types are: (1) Gerber files,which control a photoplotter. (2)NC Drill file, which controls an NC Drill machine. (3) Fabrication drawings in Gerber, HPGL or any other electronic format. Hardcopy prints may be available also. CAM files represent the final product of PCBdesign. These files are given to the board house which further refines andmanipulates CAM in their processes, for example in step and repeatpanelization.
A broken corner to eliminate an otherwise sharp edge.
Another name for a printed circuit board.
The property of a system of conductors and dielectrics thatallows the storage of electricity when a potential difference exists betweenthe conductors.
A chemical that is used to initiate the reaction or increasethe speed of the reaction between a resin and a curing agent.
Ceramic Ball GridArray (CBGA)
A ball grid array package with a ceramic substrate.
PCB board materials, standard epoxy resin with woven glassreinforcement over a paper core,differing only in the type of paper used. Theyare less expensive than Fr4.
Center to CenterSpacing
The nominal distance between the centers of adjacent featureson any single layer of a printed board,e.g.; gold fingers and surface mounts.
Pen plots, or plotted film, that are suitable for checkingand for design approval by customers.
Chip on Board (COB)
A configuration in which a chip is directly attached to aprinted circuit board or substrate by solder or conductive adhesives.
Pen plots that are suitable for checking only. Pads arerepresented as circles and thick traces as rectangular outlines instead offilled in artwork. This technique is used to enhance transparency of multiplelayers.
An integrated circuit manufactured on a semiconductorsubstrate and then cut or etched away from the silicon wafer. (Also called adie.) A chip is not ready for use until packaged and provided with externalconnections. Commonly used to mean a packaged semiconductor device.
Chip scale package
A chip package in which the total package size is no morethan 20% greater than the size of the die within. Eg: Micro BGA.
A number of electrical elements and devices that have beeninterconnected to perform a desired electrical function.
A shortened version of PCB.
CIM (ComputerIntegrated Manufacturing)
Used by an assembly house, this software inputs assemblydata from a PCB CAM/CAD package, such as Gerber and BOM, as input and, using apredefined factory modeling system, outputs routing of components to machineprogramming points and assembly and inspection documentation. In higher end systems, CIM can integrate multiple factories withcustomers and suppliers.
A layer of a printed board containing conductors, includingground and voltage planes.
A copper object on a printed circuit board. Specifyingcertain text items for a board to be "in clad," means that the textshould be made of copper, not silkscreen
A clearance (or isolation) is a term we use to describe thespace from power / ground layer copper to through hole. To prevent shorting,ground and power layer clearances need to be .025ö larger than the finish holesize for the inner layers. This allows for registration, drilling, and platingtolerances.
A hole in the conductive pattern that is larger than, andcoaxial with a hole in the base material of a printed board.
CNC (ComputerNumerical Control)
A system that utilizes a computer and software as theprimary numerical control technique.
Any of the basic parts used in building electronicequipment, such as a resister, capacitor, DIP or connector, etc.
A hole that is used for the attachment and/or electricalconnection of component terminations, including pins and wires, to a printedboard.
In order to prevent building a board inside out, we must beable to identify the correct orientation of your design. Component, layer 1, or'top' layer should read in facing up. All other layers should line up as though looking through the board from the topside.
The configuration pattern or design of the conductivematerial on a base material. (This includes conductors, lands, vias, heat sinksand passive components when those are integral parts of the printed boardmanufacturing process.
The observable distance between adjacent edges (not centerto center spacing) of isolated patterns in a conductor layer.
An uninterrupted path for the flow of electrical current ina circuit.
An insulating & protective coating that conforms to theconfiguration of the object coated and is applied on the completed boardassembly.
One leg of a net.
The intelligence inherent in PCB CAD software whichmaintains the correct connections between pins of components as defined by theschematic.
A plug or receptacle, which can be easily joined to or beseparated from its mate. Multiple contact connectors join two or moreconductors with others in one mechanical assembly.
The portion of the circuit board that is used for providingelectrical connections.
The matching of substrate material properties with tracedimensions and locations in an effort to create specific electric impedance fora signal moving along a trace. Conventional PCB: A rigid PCB with thickness0.062ö with wire leaded components, mounted only on one side of PCB, with alllead through hole soldered and clipped. Conventional circuitry is easier todebug and repair the surface mount.
The thickness of the laminate base without copper.
A thin layer of material, conductive, magnetic ordielectric, deposited on a substance surface.
Coefficient ofThermal Expansion (CTE)
The ratio of dimensional change of an object to the originaldimension when temperature changes,expressed in %/¦C or ppm/¦C.
Contact Angle(Wetting Angle)
The angle between the contact surfaces of two objects whenbonding. The contact angle is determined by the physical and chemicalproperties of these two materials.
Copper Foil (BaseCopper Weight)
Coated copper layer on the board. It can either becharacterized by weight or thickness of the coated copper layer. For instance,0.5, 1 and 2 ounces per square foot are equivalent to 18, 35 and 70 um:thickcopper layers.
Finished copper weight = 1oz.
A non-printing character which is input or output to causesome special action rather than to appear as a part of data.
The thickness of the laminate base without copper.
A flux that contains corrosive chemicals such as halides,amines, inorganic or organic acids that can cause oxidation of copper or tinconductors.
The breaking up of large conductive area by the use of apattern of voids in the conductive material.
The irreversible process of polymerizing a thermosettingepoxy in a temperature time profile.
The time needed to complete curing of an epoxy at a certaintemperature.
A cut line is whatour system uses to program the router specifications. It represents the outerdimensions of your board. This is required for the board to finish as the sizeyou want it.
A collection of interrelated data items stored togetherwithout unnecessary redundancy, to serve one or more applications.
Marking of products to indicate their date of manufacture.ACI standard is WWYY (weekweekyearyear).
The theoretically: exact point, axis or plane that is theorigin from which the location of geometric characteristics of features of apart are established.
A separation between plies within a base material, between abase material and a conductive foil, or any other planner separation with aprinted board.
Design Rule Checking
The use of a computer: aided program to perform continuityverification of all conductors routing in accordance with appropriate designrules.
The removal of friction melted resin and drilling debrisfrom a hole wall.
Destructive testing: Sectioning a portion of printed circuitpanel and examining the sections with a microscope. This is performed oncoupons, not the funtional part of the PCB.
A condition that results when molten solder has coated asurface and then receded. It leaves irregularly shaped mounds separated byareas of thin solder. The base material is not exposed.
Dry Film Solder Mask.
Integrated circuit chip as diced or cut from a finishedwafer.
The placement machine bonding IC chips onto a chip on boardsubstrate.
The attachment of an IC chip to a substrate.
A measure of the dimensional change of a material that iscaused by factors such as temperature changes, humidity changes, chemicaltreatment, and stress exposure.
A hole in a printed board whose location is determined byphysical dimensions or coordinate values that do not necessarily coincide withthe stated grid.
The PCB having two circuit layers with pads & traces areon both sides of the board.
Double sided Laminate: A bare PCB laminate having tracks onboth sides, normally PTH holes connecting circuitry two sides together.
Double side componentassembly
Mounting component on both sides of PCB, for e.g. SMDtechnology.
This is a text file describing drill tool number andcorresponding size. Some reports also include quantity. Please Note: All drillsizes will be interpreted as plated through finished sizes unless otherwisespecified.
In order to process your order, we require a drill file(with x:y coordinates) that is viewable in any text editor.
Dry Film Resists
Coated photosensitive film on the copper foil of PCB usingphotographic methods. They are resistant to electroplating and etchingprocesses in the manufacturing process of PCB.
Dry Film Solder Mask
A solder mask film applied to a printed board usingphotographic methods. This method can manage the higher resolution required forfine line design and surface mount.
A connector on the circuit board edge in the form of goldplated pads or lines of coated holes used to connect other circuit board orelectronic device.
The smallest distance from any conductors or components tothe edge of the PCB.
The deposition of a conductive material from a platingsolution by the application of electrical current.
The deposition of conductive material from an auto catalyticreduction of a metal ion on certain catalytic surfaces.
The electrode position of a metal coating on a conductiveobject. The object to be plated is placed in an electrolyte and connected toone terminal of a DC voltage source. The metal to be deposited is similarly immersed and connected to the other terminal. Ions of themetal provide transfer to metal as they make up the current flow between theelectrodes.
(1-sided / 2-sided) Testing is used primarily to test foropens and shorts. PCBpro recommends testing for all surface mount boards andmulti-layer orders (3 layers & up). The quoted price is accurate up to 1000 test points for a one-sided test fixture, and up to 600points for a double-sided surface mount test fixture.
A version of CAD,CAM and CAE in which the software packagesused and their inputs and outputs are integrated with each other and allowdesign to flow smoothly with no manual intervention necessary (other than a fewkeystrokes or menu selections) to get from one step to the other. Flow canoccur in both directions. In the field of PCB design, end-to-end designsometimes refers to only the electronic schematic/pcb layout interface, butthis is a narrow view of the potentialities of the concept
“Engineering-pad." A plated-through hole or surfacemount pad on a PCB placed on the board for the purpose of attaching a wire bysoldering. These are usually labeled with silkscreen. E-pads are used tofacilitate proto-typing, or simply because wires are used for interconnectionsinstead of headers or terminal blocks.
A family of thermosetting resins. Epoxies form a chemicalbond to many metal surfaces.
Epoxy resin that has been deposited on edges of copper inholes during drilling either as uniform coating or in scattered patches. It isundesirable because it can electrically isolate the conductive layers from theplated-through-hole interconnections.
Electro-statically applied Solder Resist.
Removing unwanted metallic substance by chemical orchemical/electrolytic process
The controlled removal by a chemical process, to a specificdepth, of nonmetallic materials from the sidewalls of holes in order to removeresin smear and to expose additional internal conductor surfaces.
Excellon Drill File
In order to process your order, we require a drill file(with x-y coordinates) that is viewable in any text editor.
A drawing used to aid the construction of a printed circuitboard. It shows all of the locations of the holes to be drilled, their sizesand tolerances, dimensions of the board edges, and notes on the materials andmethods to be used. Called "fab Drawing" for short. It relates theboard edge to at least one hole location as a reference point so that the NCDrill file can be properly aligned.
Circuit boards made and dispatched within days rather thanweeks of being
A printed board feature (or features) that is created in thesame process as the conductive pattern and that provides a common measurablepoint for component mounting with respect to a land pattern or land patterns.
Refers to chip packages with lead pitches below .050. Thelargest pitch in this class of parts is about.031. Lead pitches as small as.020 are used.
A gold-plated terminal of a card-edge connector. (Derivedfrom its shape.)
A sample part or assembly typically manufactured prior tothe start of production for the purpose of ensuring that the manufacturer iscapable of producing a product that will meet specified requirements.
Our Industry standard format for files used to generateartwork necessary for circuit board imaging.PCBpro's preferred Gerber format isRS274X, which embeds the apertures within the specific files(see Apertureinformation). If files are not saved in RS274X, PCBpro will need “One” aperturelist sent with the files.When your software outputs more than one list, thereis a risk of the wrong d-codes being applied, or, risk of an added cost to youif we need to hand enter the values. It is file viewer that will allow you topreview your Gerber files as interpreted by our plotting software.
You can output the Gerber RS274X and Excellon Drill filesfrom your Ivex .brd file. It is a viewer that will allow you to preview the productionfiles as interpreted by our plotting software.
You can output the Gerber RS274X and Excellon Drill filesfrom your Eagle.brd file. It is a viewer that will allow you to preview theproduction files as interpreted by our plotting software.
You can output the Gerber RS274X and Excellon Drill filesfrom your Protel file. It is a viewer that will allow you to preview theproduction files as interpreted by our plotting software.
Extra files add confusion and missing files add delays. Whenordering a 4-layer board with Soldermask and One side Silkscreen, send in 7layers and a drill file. A missing file layer will mean a delay. Extra fileswill delay if they contain information in conflict with the order form i.e.print, readme,old tool file which was not changed etc. Sending in every thingthat the program will output will onlyadd confusion and possible delay
This is the finished weight of the base and electroplatedcopper per square foot of material.
Fine pitch is more commonly referred to surface-mountcomponents with a lead pitch of 25 mils or less.
Fine line design
Printed circuit design permitting two (rarely three) tracesbetween adjacent DIP pins. It entails the use of a either dry film solder maskor liquid photoimageable solder mask (LPI), both of which are more accuratethan wet solder mask.
Flexible circuit, or flex circuit; a printed circuit made ofthin, flexible material.
The material used to remove oxides from metal surfaces andenable wetting of the metal with solder.
A type of bare board electrical test machine that usesprobes on the ends of mechanical arms to locate and touch the pads on theboard. The probes move quickly across the board verifying continuity of eachnet as well as resistance to adjacent nets.
A paper material with a phenolic resin binder. FR-1 has a TGof about 130°C.
A paper material with phenolic resin binder similar to FR-1- but with a TG of about 105°C.l
A paper material that is similar to FR-2 - except that anepoxy resin is used instead of phenolic resin as a binder. Used mainly inEurope.
The most commonly used PCB board material. "FR"stands for Flame Retardant and "4" means woven glass reinforced epoxyresin.
Fire-Retardant glass-and-polyester substrate material forelectronic circuits. Inexpensive; popular for automobile electronics
The electrical testing of an assembled electronic devicewith simulated function generated by the test hardware and software.
Industry standard format for files used to generate artworknecessary for circuit board imaging. The preferred Gerber format is RS274X,which embeds the apertures within the specific files. The apertures assignspecific values to design data (specific pad size, trace width, etc.), andthese values make up a D-code list. When files are not saved as RS274X, a textfile with values must be included because the values must be hand-entered byour CAM operators. This slows down the process and
increases the margin for human error, as well as lead-timeand cost.
A laminate consisting of woven epoxy-glass cloth impregnatedwith epoxy resin under pressure and heat. G10 lacks the anti-flammabilityproperties of FR-4. Used mainly for thin circuits such as in watches.
Gerber CAM Viewer
There are many Gerber viewers in the market. Here is a shortlist: GC Prevue, View Mate, GerbTool,CAM 350, CAMTASTIC, CAMCAD, CAM Expert,Evgraver, View Plot etc.Gerber Viewer Recommendations - View mate :Use theparameters on our pcb capabilities page to learn about our manufacturingcapabilities prior to layout of your design, and prevent processing failures.By setting the pad sizes, clearances, minimum traces and spaces so your designwill make it through the manufacturing process and will prevent board failures.
The woven glass fiber laminate impregnated with polyimideresin.
A blob of non-conductive plastic, often black in color,which protects the chip and wire bonds on a packaged IC and also on a chip onboard . This specialized plastic has a low coefficient of thermal expansion sothat ambient temperature changes will not rip loose the wire bonds it isdesigned to protect. In high-volume chip on board production, these aredeposited by automated machinery and are round. In prototype work, they aredeposited by hand and can be custom-shaped; however, in designing formanufacturability, one assumes a prototype product will "take- off"and ultimately have high market demand, and so lays out chip on board toaccommodate a round glob top with adequate tolerance for machine-driven"slop-over".
Glue is automatically placed at the center of a componentfor extra structural integrity as a bonding agent between the component and theboard.
The gold-plated terminal of a card-edge connector.
Certain areas of PCB are for use of contact pad. Unless thewhole PCB is process for etching, this technique is limited in thisapplication, normally to pads of edge of PCB as an electrolytic plating barmust be attached to the pads and then removed part away through the PCBmanufacturing process.
the PCB manuf
A common reference point for electrical circuits returns,shielding or heat sinking.
A conductive plane as a common ground reference in amultilayer PCB for current returns of the circuit elements and shielding.
HASL -(Hot Air SolderLeveling)
A method of coating exposed copper with solder by insertinga panel into a bath of molten solder then passing the panel rapidly past jetsof hot air.
HDI - (High DensityInterconnect)
Ultra fine-geometry multi-layer PCB constructed withconductive microvia connections. These boards also usually include buriedand/or blind vias and are made by sequential lamination.
Airtight sealing of an object.
The portion of a connector assembly which is mounted on aprinted circuit board.
A condition in which a hole is not completely surrounded bythe land.
The quantity of holes in a unit area of a printed board.
The arrangement of all holes in a printed board with respectto a refrence point.
The process of transferring electronic data to thephoto-plotter, which in turn uses light to transfer a negative image circuitrypattern onto the panel or film.
The chemical deposition of a thin metallic coating overcertain basis metals that is achieved by a partial displacement of the basismetal.
The resistance to the flow of current, represented by anelectrical network of combined resistance,capacitance and inductance reaction,in a conductor as seen by an AC source of varying time voltage.The unit ofmeasure is ohms.
Foreign particles, metallic or nonmetallic, that may beentrapped in an insulating material, conductive layer, plating, base material,or solder connection.
Electrical test of individual component or part of thecircuit in a PCB assembly instead of testing the whole circuit.
The dispersal of well-defined ink "dots" onto aPCB. Inkjet equipment uses heat to liquefy a solid ink pellet and change theink into a liquid, which is then dropped via a nozzle onto the printedsurface,where it quickly dries.
The electrical resistance of an insulating material that isdetermined under specific conditions between any pair of contacts, conductors,or grounding devices in various combinations.
All boards meet IPC Class 2 Guidelines.
A conductive pattern which is contained entirely within amultilayer printed board
Internal Power andGround Layers
These are usually solid copper plains of a multi-layer boardthat carry power or are ground. Please generate these layers as negatives. Makeany clearances on these layers .035” over the drill / tool size. This willprevent shorting from occurring with layer shifting on inner layers.
The IST system is designed to quantify the ability of thetotal interconnect to withstand the thermal and mechanical strains, from the asmanufactured state, until the product reaches the point of interconnectfailure.
Interstitial Via Hole
An embedded through-hole with connection of two or moreconductor layers in a multilayer PCB.
Electroless coating of copper in traditional pcb manufactureto achieve the basis of through hole plating, and/or the electroless depositionof tin, silver, or nickel and gold to pads and holes to offer a solderablefinish to the circuitry. Tracks might also be coated in this way for particularreasons.IPC-(The Institute for Interconnecting and PackagingElectronic Circuits)The final American authority on how to design andmanufacture printed Circuit Board.
It simply allows for a score line to jump over most of thepanel border, leaving the border largely intact,and as a result, stronger andmore rigid, resulting in a stiffer and stronger assembly panel.
KGB -(Known GoodBoard)
A board or assembly that is verified to be free of defects.Also known as a Golden Board.
A composite material made by bonding together several layersof same or different materials.
The process of manufacturing a laminate using pressure andheat.
Thickness of the metal-clad base material, single ordouble-sided, prior to any subsequent processing.
An absence of epoxy resin in any cross-sectional area thatshould normally contain epoxy resin.
The portion of the conductive pattern on printed circuitsdesignated for the mounting or attachment of components. Also called a pad.
A plotter that uses a laser, which simulates a vectorphoto-plotter by using software to create a raster image of the individualobjects in a CAD database, then plots the image as a series of lines of dots ata very fine resolution. A laser photo-plotter is capable ofmore accurate and consistent plots than a vector plotter.
Layer sequence helps to build the layer stack up from top tobottom and one can and its very help to CAD to identify the type of layer.
The layers give indication of different sides of PCB.On-board text such as company name, logo, or part number that is orientedright-reading on the top layer will quickly allow us to determine that fileshave been imported correctly. This simple step can save a time-consuming holdnotice and potential hold up. Please note: any traces on outer layer that are0.010" wide or less will require ½ ounce copper starting weight to preventexcessive trace width reduction.
The process in which treated prepegs and copper foils areassembled for pressing.
A small amount of current that flows across a dielectricarea between two adjacent conductors.
A format of printed letters or symbols on the PCB, such aspart numbers and product number or logos.
A quantity of circuit board that share a common design.
Some Customers require a manufacturer's lot code to beplaced on the board for future tracking purposes. A drawing can specify thelocation, what layer and if it is to be in copper, mask opening, or silkscreen.This option is available on the Full-Featured instant quote.
LPI -(LiquidPhoto-Imageable Solder Mask)
An ink that is developed off using photographic imagingtechniques to control deposition. It is the most accurate method of maskapplication and results in a thinner mask than dry film solder mask. It isoften preferred for dense SMT. Application can be spray or curtaincoat.
A defect that is likely to result in failure of a unit orproduct by materially reducing its usability for its intended purpose.
A material applied to enable selective etching, plating, orthe application of solder to a PCB. Also called solder mask or resist.
Master aperture list
Any aperture list which is used for two or more PCBÆs iscalled master aperture list for that set of PCB.
Discrete white spots or crosses below the surface of thebase laminate that reflect a separation of fibers in the glass cloth at theweave intersection.
The plane of conductive material of a printed board fromwhich circuits are formed. Metal foil is generally copper and is provided insheets or rolls.
The preparation of a specimen of a material, or materials,used in metallographic examination. This usually consists of cutting out across-section followed by encapsulation, polishing, etching, and staining.
Usually defined as a conductive hole with a diameter of0.005" or less that connects layers of a multi-layer PCB. Often used torefer to any small geometry connection holes created by laser drilling.
One thousandth of an inch.
Minimum Traces &Spacing
Traces are the ôWiresö of the Printed Circuit Board (alsoknown as tracks). Spaces are the distancesbetween traces, the distances betweenpads, or the distances between a pad and a trace. How wide is the smallesttrace (line, track, wire), or space between traces or pads? Whichever is lessof the two governs the order form selection.
A hole that is used for the mechanical support of a printedboard or for the mechanical attachment of components to a printed board.
The smallest width of any conductors, such as traces, on aPCB.
The smallest distance between any two adjacent conductors,such as traces, in a PCB.
A defect that is not likely to result in the failure of aunit of product or that does not reduce the usability
for its intended purpose.
The pads and traces are on both sides and also there aretraces embedded within the board. Such PCB’s are called Multilayer PCB.
Numeric Control drill machine used to drill holes at exactlocations of a PCB specified in NC Drill File.
NC drill file
A text file which tells an NC drill where to drill itsholes.
A reverse-image copy of a positive, useful for checkingrevisions of a PCB and is often used for representing inner layer planes. Whena negative image is used for an inner-layer it would typically have clearances(solid circles) and thermals (segmented donuts) that either isolate holes fromthe plane or make thermally relieved connections respectively.
A collection of terminals all of which are, or must be,connected electrically. Also known as signal.
List of names of symbols or parts and their connectionpoints which are logically connected in each net of a circuit. A netlist can becaptured from properly prepared schematic-drawing files of an electrical CAEapplication.
A pin or lead to which at least two components are connectedthrough conductors.
A diagram on PCB to indicate the orientation and location ofcomponents.
Identification symbols applied to the board by means ofscreen printing, inkjetting, or laser processes.
It is also called a slot, it can be seen only on theexternal side of the board, generally seen in mechanical layers used forrouting.
Non-plated Through Hole. We recommend that you include adrill drawing to identify the non-plated holes in your design. Because designpackages often calculate the amount of clearance around a non-plated holedifferently than a plated hole, the non-plated holes can end up with lessallowance for passing through solid copper ground and power planes. While thisis not a problem when the non-plated information is supplied in a drilldrawing, it only becomes one if the non-plated information is omitted. The result being mounting holes that short thepower and ground planes together. Remember to always identify your non-platedholes.
Number of Holes
This is the total number of holes in the board. There is noinfluence on price and no limit to quantity of holes on PCB.
Open circuit. An unwanted break in the continuity of anelectrical circuit which prevents current from flowing.
Organic solder preservative also known as Organic SurfaceProtection is the lead-free procedure and meets the full requirements of theRoHS-Compliance.
The top and bottom sides of any type of circuit board.
The portion of the conductive pattern on printed circuitsdesignated for the mounting or attachment of components.
Typically refers to the width of the ring of metal around ahole in a pad.
The name or number associated with your printed circuitboard for your convenience.
A rectangular sheet of base material or metal-clad materialof predetermined size that is used for the processing of printed boards and,when required, one or more test coupons.
The configuration of conductive and nonconductive materialson a panel or printed board. Also, the circuit configuration on related tools,drawing, and masters.
The selective plating of a conductive pattern.
Printed Circuit Board. Also called Printed Wiring Board(PWB).
All of the data fundamental to a PCB design , stored as oneor more files on a computer.
Software that helps designer to do schematic, layout design,routing and optimizations, etc. There are many design software and tools in themarket. Some of them are free PCB design software. Here is a
short list: ExpressPCB, EAGLE, PROTEL, CADSTAR, ORCAD,CIRCUIT MAKER, P-CAD 2000, PCB ELEGANCE, EDWIN, VISUALPC, BPECS32,AUTOENGINEER, EXPERT PCB, CIRCAD, LAYOUT,CIRCUIT LAYOUT, MCCAD, DREAM CAD,E-CAD, POWERPCB, PCB ASSISTANT, PCB DESIGNER,QCAD, QUICK ROUTE, TARGET 3001,WIN CIRCUIT 98, BOARD EDITOR, PCB, VUTRAX, CIRCUIT CREATOR, PADSPCB, DESIGNWORKS, OSMOND PPC, LAY01, SCORE, GElectronic, PRO-Board,PRO-Net , CSIEDA,VISUALPCB, WINBOARD, ULTIBOARD, EASY PC, RANGER, PROTEUS, EPD -
Electronics Packaging Designer , AutoTrax Eda, SprintLayout, CADINT, KICAD, Merlin PCB Designer,FREE-PCB, TinyCAD, WINQCAD,Pulsonix, DIPTRACE.
A general process can be simplified as: Copper laminate-> Drill board -> Deposit Cu ->Photolithography -> Tin lead plateor finishing -> Etch -> Hot air level -> Solder mask -> E-Testing-> Routing/V-scoring -> Product inspection -> Final cleanning ->Packaging . (Note : Procedure is same for manufacturing but varies with respect to differentmanufacturer)
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
Printed Electronic Component.
It is cheaper laminate material different from fibre glassmaterial.
An image in a photo mask or in an emulsion that is on a filmor plate.
The process of forming a circuit pattern image by hardeninga photosensitive polymeric material by passing light through a photographicfilm.
A photographic process whereby an image is generated by acontrolled light beam that directly exposes a light-sensitive material.
A material that is sensitive to portions of the lightspectrum and that, when properly exposed can mask portions of a base metal witha high degree of integrity.
A transparent film that contains the circuit pattern, whichis represented by a series of lines of dots at a high resolution.
A terminal on a component, whether SMT or through-hole. Alsocalled a lead.
The center-to-center spacing between conductors, such aspads and pins, on a PCB.
A manufacturing operation of assembly process in whichcomponents are selected and placed onto specific locations according to theassembly file of the circuit.
Plated Through Hole, a hole with the plated copper on itssides to provide electrical connections between conductive patterns at thelevels of a printed circuit board. There are two types of PTH. One is for mounting components and the other is not used to mount component.
The chemical or electrochemical process in which metal isdeposited on a surface.
The area of absence of a specific metal from a specificcross-sectional area.
Plastic Leaded ChipCarrier (PLCC)
A component package with J-leads.
Material deposited as a covering film on an area to preventplating on this area.
The masters for photo-tools produced from Gerber files.
Developed images of photo-plotted file, where the areasselectively exposed by the photo-plotter appear black and unexposed areas areclear. For outer-layers, color will indicate copper. Positive inner-layers willhave clear areas to indicate copper.
A sheet of material that has been impregnated with a resincured to an intermediate stage. I.e. B-stage resin.
A flat plate of metal within the lamination press in betweenin which stacks are placed during pressing.
A pcb made and built to test a design.
This is used to generate the information in the Price Matrixprice table.
Quad Flat Pack, a fine-pitch SMT package that is rectangularor square with gull-wing shaped leads on all four sides.
A bunch of straight lines (unrouted connections) betweenpins which represents graphically the connectivity of a PCB CAD database.
The name of components on a printed circuit by conventionbeginning with one or two letters followed by a numeric value. The letterdesignates the class of component; e.g. "Q" is commonly used as aprefix for transistors. Reference designators appear as usually white or yellowepoxy ink (the "silkscreen") on a circuit board. They are placedclose to their respective components but not underneath them. So that they are visibleon the assembled board.
A dimension without a tolerance that is used only forinformational purposes that does not govern inspection or other manufacturingoperations.
The degree of conformity to the position of a pattern, or aportion thereof, a hole or other feature to its intended position on a product.
A text file included in the zip file, which providesnecessary information needed to manufacture your order. Phone numbers or emailaddresses of designer or engineer contacts for this project should be included to expedite resolution of any potentialmanufacturing problems that could delay your order.
Boards pass through an oven in which the solder paste wasdeposited earlier.
Melting, joining and solidification of two coated metallayers by application of heat to the surface and predeposited solder paste.
Coating material used to mask or to protect selected areasof a pattern from the action of an etchant,solder, or plating.
Resin (Epoxy) Smear
Resin transferred from the base material onto the surface ofthe conductive pattern in the wall of a drilled hole.
A PCB construction combining flexible circuits and rigidmulti-layers usually to provide a built-in connection or to make athree-dimension form that includes components.
If you have the same drawing number but updated revisions,please enter it here. This will avoid any confusion for manufacturing yourdesired boards. Please make sure that your revision number is included withyour drawings.
RF (radio frequency) and wireless design
A circuit design that operates in a range of electromagneticfrequencies above the audio range and below visible light. All broadcasttransmission, from AM radio to satellites, falls into this range, which is between 30KHz and 300GHz.
Restriction of Hazardous Substances is one of a handful ofEuropean legislation intended to eliminate or severely curtail the use ofcadmium, hexavalent chromium, and lead in all products from automobiles toconsumer electronics.
RoHS Compliant PCB
PCB boards that are processed under RoHS regulations.
Route (or Track): A layout or wiring of an electricalconnection.
A machine that cuts away portions of the laminate to formthe desired shape and size of the printed board.
A diagram which shows, by means of graphic symbols, theelectrical connections and functions of a specific circuit arrangement.
A technique in which grooves are machined on opposite sidesof a panel to a depth that permits individual boards to be separated from thepanel after component assembly.
A process for transferring an image from a patterned screento a substrate through a paste forced by a squeegee of a screen printer.
Short: Short circuit
An abnormal connection of relatively low resistance betweentwo points of a circuit. The result is excess (often damaging) current betweenthese points. Such a connection is considered to have occurred in a printedwiring CAD database or artwork anytime conductors from different nets eithertouch or come closer than the minimum spacing allowed for the design rulesbeing used.
Depends on the size of the manufacturing facility and thesize of the printed circuit boards to be made. A short manufacturing run ofprinted circuits means from one to tens of panels of pcbs required to fulfill the order rather than hundreds.
Silk Screen (SilkLegend)
Epoxy-ink Legend printed on PCB. The most common colors usedare white and yellow.
In order to process your order, we require a drill file(with x:y coordinates) that is viewable in any text editor
Single Side PCB
The pads and traces are on the one side of the board only.
PCB design with only one route between adjacent DIP pins.
Small OutlineIntegrated Circuit (SOIC)
An integrated circuit with two parallel rows of pins insurface mount package.
Size X & Y
All dimensions are in inches or metric. If board is inmetric, please convert to inches. Please note,maximum X & Y configuration108" This means if the width (X) is 14", then the maximum length (Y)is7.71".
Solder mask over bare copper.
Surface Mount Device.
Surface Mount Technology.
Solder connecting, in most cases, misconnecting, two or moreadjacent pads that come into contact to form a conductive path.
Round solder balls bonded to the pads of components used inface-down bonding techniques.
A layer of solder that is applied directly from a moltensolder bath to a conductive pattern.
The process by which the board is exposed to hot oil or hotair to remove excess solder from holes and lands.
Solder Mask or Solderresist
Coating to prevent solder to deposit on.
Used to protect the board and circuitry during the assemblyand packaging operations. Among other things, the solder mask helps preventssolder bridges between adjacent pads and traces during the wave solderingprocess.
Solder Mask (Artwork)
To generate your Soldermask artwork, add your smallest spacemeasurement to the pad size. For boards with 0.006" spaces, use a pad sizeup to +0.006" up to 0.010" for 0.010". Spaces larger than0.010" should have a pad size of +0.010".Please noteWhile we makeevery attempt to leave a mask "dam" between surface mounts, finepitch areas will berelieved in strips. Our manufacturing process needs at least0.005" mask "dam" between pads in order to adhere to the board.Pad-to-pad spacing less than 0.013" may not have solder mask between them.
There are different types of colour used for solder mask,for e,g Green, Red, Blue and white etc..
Associated with SMT. A paste screened onto a pcb or panel ofpcbs to facilitate the placing and soldering of surface mount components. Alsoused to refer to the Gerber file used to produce the stencil/screen.
A band of wire removes molten solder away from a solderjoining or a solder bridge or just for desoldering.
Statistical Process Control. The collection of process dataand creation of control charting is a tool used to monitor processes and toassure that they remain in control or stable. Control charts help distinguishprocess variation due to assignable causes from those due to unassignablecauses.
The successive exposure of a single image on order toproduce a multiple-image production master.Also used in CNC programs.
Components are attached and soldered to a printed circuitboard. Often done by an assembly house.
A group of printed circuits arrayed in a panel and handledby both the board house and the assembly house as though it were a singleprinted wiring board. The sub-panel is usually prepared at the board house byrouting most of the material separating individual modules leaving small tabs.
A material on whose surface adhesive substance is spread forbonding or coating. Also, any material that provides a supporting surface forother materials used to support printed circuit patterns.
The pitch of the surface mount is defined as the dimensionin inches from center to center of surface mount pads. Standard pitch is>0.025", fine pitch is 0.011"-0.025", and ultra fine pitch is<0.011".As boards contain finer pitch, processing and test fixturecosts increase.
It is the type of finish required by customer for his board.The different surface finishing processes are HASL, OSP Immersion gold,Immersion silver, Gold plating for all of regular boards.,
Tape Automated Bonding
Tab Routing (with& without perforation holes)
Rather that completing the route path around the board edge,ôTabsö are left so as to leave boards attached in pallets for ease in assembly.And it also provides good mechanical strength to the board.
The ratio of a quantity change of an electrical parameter,such as resistance or capacitance, of an electronic component to the originalvalue when temperature changes, expressed in %/ºC or ppm/ºC.
A via with dry film solder mask completely covering both itspad and its plated-thru hole. This completely insulates the via from foreignobjects, thus protecting against accidental shorts, but it also renders the viaunusable as a test point. Sometimes vias are tented on the topside of the boardand left uncovered on the bottom side to permit probing from that side onlywith a text fixture.
The covering of holes in a printed board and the surroundingconductive pattern with a dry film resist.
A point of connection for two or more conductors in anelectrical circuit; one of the conductors is usually an electrical contact orlead of a component.
A printed board that is deemed to be suitable fordetermining the acceptability of a group of boards that were. Or will be,produced with the same fabrication process.
A device that interfaces between test equipment and the unitunder test.
A specific point in a circuit board used for specifictesting for functional adjustment or quality test in the circuit-based device.
A method for determining whether sub-assemblies, assembliesand/or a finished product conform to a set of parameter and functionalspecifications. Test types include: in-circuit, functional, system-level,reliability, environmental.
A portion of a printed board or of a panel containingprinted coupons used to determine the acceptability of such a board.
Glass transition temperature. The point at which risingtemperatures cause resin inside the solid base laminate to start to exhibitsoft, plastic-like symptoms. This is expressed in degrees Celsius (°C).
An extra cathode placed as to divert to itself some of thecurrent from portions of the board which otherwise would receive too high acurrent density.
Having pins designed to be inserted into holes and solderedto pads on a printed board. Also spelled "thru-hole".
The processes and/or costs of setting up to manufacture arun of pcbs for the first time.
The general term for holes placed on a PCB or a panel ofPCBs for registration and hold-down purposes during the manufacturing process.
Segment of a conductor route or net.
The list of instructions describing the board, including anyspecific processing requirements. Also called a shop traveler, routing sheet,job order, or production order.
A type of outsourcing method that turns over to thesubcontractor all aspects of manufacturing including material acquisition,assembly and testing. Its opposite is consignment, where the outsourcingcompany provides all materials required for the products and the subcontractorprovides only assembly equipment and labour.
A laminate defect in which deviation from planarity resultsin a twisted arc.
UL: (UnderwritersLaboratories Inc.)
A corporation supported by some underwriters for the purposeof establishing safety standards on types of equipment or components.
A logotype denoting that a product has been recognized(accepted) by Underwriters Laboratories Inc.(UL).
Cured Epoxy glass without any copper layer(s).
Polymerizing, hardening, or cross linking a low molecularweight resinous material in a wet coating ink using ultra violet light as anenergy source.
A term used in "Streamlined PCB Designô.Artwork forelectronic circuits which have been laid out and documented in forms, perfectlysuited to the photo-imaging and numeric-controlled tooling processes of printedcircuit manufacture. It is termed "final" because it has beenthoroughly checked for errors and any corrected as needed and is now ready formanufacture without further work by the PCB designer . It is valuable becauseit could be exchanged with a customer for money or other support.
A plated through hole (PTH) in a Printed Circuit Board thatis used to provide electrical connection between a trace on one layer of thePrinted Circuit Board to a trace on another layer. Since it is not used tomount component leads, it is generally a small hole and pad diameter.
The absence of any substances in a localized area. (e.g.missing plating in a hole, or missing track).
Rather than completing a route path around the board edge,the edges are "scored" to allow breaking boards apart after assembly.This is another way to palletize / panelized the boards. This method createstwo beveled scoring lines along the perimeter of your boards. This makes iteasier to break apart the boards at a later date. You would receive your boardsin panel form like tab routing.
A process in which assembled printed boards are brought incontact with a continuously flowing and circulating mass of solder, typicallyin a bath to connect the leads of components to through hole pads and barrels,is called wave soldering.
Wet solder mask
A wet solder mask is a distribution of wet epoxy ink througha silk screen, has a resolution suitable for single-track design, but is notaccurate enough for fine-line design.
Migration of copper salts into the glass fibers of theinsulating material found in the barrel of a plated hole.
Besides its usual definition of a strand of conductor, wireon a printed board also means a route or track.
Wire wrap area
A portion of a board riddled with plated-through holes on a100-mil grid. Its purpose is for accepting circuits which may be foundnecessary after a PCB has been manufactured, stuffed, tested and debugged.
The horizontal or left-to-right direction in atwo-dimensional system of coordinates.
The vertical or bottom-to-top direction in a two-dimensionalsystem of coordinates.
All files needed for the processing of your order must becompressed in a zip file. Due to the large amount of orders received. WinZip orPkzip can be downloaded from pcb links page.
The axis perpendicular to the plane formed by the X and Ydatum reference. This axis usually represents the thickness of the boards.